Home Page Biblical Sodom and Gomorrah found! The name of these two cities have long been by-words in our language for wickedness. And many scholars and archaeologists have long searched for the truth about these cities. Fig1 Fig 2 below shows the excavation site of the known traditional location of the “Sanctuary of Lot” in the hills above the indicated site for Zoar. Fig2 One popular theory for a long time was that the Sodom and Gomorrah were located in the plain south of the Dead Sea and later covered by the waters as the Dead sea water level has changed over time. The level of the waters has receded in recent years and search of the area has located no evidence to verify this location. Searches starting in began to discover evidences of occupied cities in the area southeast of the Dead Sea, most of them located so as to obtain the benefit of water flow from the many Wadi’s of the area.
Space-filling model of argon fluorohydride Argon’s complete octet of electrons indicates full s and p subshells. This full valence shell makes argon very stable and extremely resistant to bonding with other elements. Before , argon and the other noble gases were considered to be chemically inert and unable to form compounds; however, compounds of the heavier noble gases have since been synthesized. The first argon compound with tungsten pentacarbonyl, W CO 5Ar, was isolated in However it was not widely recognised at that time.
Se emplea como gas de relleno en lámparas incandescentes ya que no reacciona con el material del filamento incluso a alta temperatura y presión, prolongando de este modo la vida útil de la bombilla, y en sustitución del neón en lámparas fluorescentes cuando se desea un color verde-azul en vez del rojo del neón. También como sustituto del nitrógeno molecular (N 2) cuando éste no se.
Clearly visible in the canyon walls are the light-colored granites, such as the Zoroaster Granite, which are stark against the darker, folded strata of the Vishnu Schist and the other metamorphic rock units of the Granite Gorge Metamorphic Suite1 see lowest purple and green shading in diagram. These are former sedimentary and volcanic strata that have been transformed by heat and pressure, possibly during the intense upheavals when the dry land was formed on Day 3 of Creation Week. These were originally basalt lava flows several meters to tens of meters thick.
In some outcrops pillow structures have been preserved, testimony to the basalt lavas having originally erupted and flowed under water onto the Creation Week ocean floor. Metamorphic rocks are not always easy to date using radio-isotopes. Results obtained usually signify the “date” of the metamorphism, but they may also yield the “age” of the original volcanic or sedimentary rock. The “age” or “date” is calculated from the amount of the daughter isotope produced by radioactive decay of the parent isotope.
In Grand Canyon, the “date” of metamorphism of the basalt lavas to form these Brahma amphibolites has been determined as Ma million years ago , based on U-Pb dating of minerals in the overlying Vishnu Schist and underlying Rama Schist that formed during the metamorphism. These included seven samples from a meter long and 2 meter wide amphibolite body outcropping just upstream from the mouth of Clear Creek at river mile 84 measured from Lees Ferry.
All 27 samples were sent to two well-credentialed internationally-recognized, commercial laboratories for radioisotope analyses—potassium-argon K-Ar at a Canadian laboratory, and rubidium-strontium Rb-Sr , samarium-neodymium Sm-Nd , and lead-lead Pb-Pb , at an Australian laboratory. Both laboratories use standard, best-practice procedures on state-of-the-art equipment.
How did Libby test his method and find out if it worked correctly? Libby tested the new radiocarbon method on carbon samples from prehistoric Egypt whose age was known. A sample of acacia wood from the tomb of the pharoah Zoser was dated for example. Zoser lived during the 3rd Dynasty in Egypt BC. The results they obtained indicated this was the case.
Many other radiocarbon dates were conducted on samples of wood of known age.
Chronology: 15 Billion B.C. – 4 Million B.C. 11, B.C. – 9, B.C. 9, B.C. – 3, B.C. 3, B.C. – 1 A.D. Historical Summary: B.C – 1 A.D. Historical.
The Radiometric Dating Game Radiometric dating methods estimate the age of rocks using calculations based on the decay rates of radioactive elements such as uranium, strontium, and potassium. On the surface, radiometric dating methods appear to give powerful support to the statement that life has existed on the earth for hundreds of millions, even billions, of years. We are told that these methods are accurate to a few percent, and that there are many different methods. We are told that of all the radiometric dates that are measured, only a few percent are anomalous.
This gives us the impression that all but a small percentage of the dates computed by radiometric methods agree with the assumed ages of the rocks in which they are found, and that all of these various methods almost always give ages that agree with each other to within a few percentage points. Since there doesn’t seem to be any systematic error that could cause so many methods to agree with each other so often, it seems that there is no other rational conclusion than to accept these dates as accurate.
1. Rate of Decay
Updated 8 January c Introduction In a related article on geologic ages Ages , we presented a chart with the various geologic eras and their ages. In a separate article Radiometric dating , we sketched in some technical detail how these dates are calculated using radiometric dating techniques. As we pointed out in these two articles, radiometric dates are based on known rates of radioactivity, a phenomenon that is rooted in fundamental laws of physics and follows simple mathematical formulas.
Dating schemes based on rates of radioactivity have been refined and scrutinized for several decades. The latest high-tech equipment permits reliable results to be obtained even with microscopic samples.
Argon is a noble gas. The noble gases are the six elements in Group 18 (VIIIA) of the periodic table. The periodic table is a chart that shows how the chemical elements are related to each other.
Potassium—argon dating[ edit ] Decay scheme Potassium is especially important in potassium—argon K—Ar dating. Argon is a gas that does not ordinarily combine with other elements. So, when a mineral forms — whether from molten rock , or from substances dissolved in water — it will be initially argon-free, even if there is some argon in the liquid. However, if the mineral contains any potassium, then decay of the 40K isotope present will create fresh argon that will remain locked up in the mineral.
Since the rate at which this conversion occurs is known, it is possible to determine the elapsed time since the mineral formed by measuring the ratio of 40K and 40Ar atoms contained in it. The argon found in Earth’s atmosphere is It follows that most of the terrestrial argon derives from potassium that decayed into argon , which eventually escaped to the atmosphere. Contribution to natural radioactivity[ edit ] The evolution of Earth’s mantle radiogenic heat flow over time: The radioactive decay of 40K in the Earth’s mantle ranks third, after Th and U , as the source of radiogenic heat.
Muziek & Liturgie
An inert blanket of gas prevents any chemicals in the operation from reacting with oxygen and other substances present in air. Argon is also used in making “neon” lamps and in lasers. Discovery and naming Argon was discovered in
Mars, also known as “The Red Planet,” is the first and greatest Forge World of the Imperium of Man located in the Sol System of the Segmentum Solar, producing vast numbers of weapons, vehicles and other advanced technology for the Imperium and its war efforts throughout the galaxy. Mars is also.
During the Pleistocene, mountain glaciers formed on all the continents and vast glaciers, in places as much as several thousand feet thick, spread across North America and Eurasia. In the eastern U. The Cenozoic [Recent Life] Era is divided into two main sub-divisions: Most of the Cenozoic is the Tertiary, from 65 million years ago to 1. The Quaternary includes only the last 1.
That is, land which had been raised. The wave ended in the Artic Ocean. Had there been an ice cap covering the northern parts of Asia, these waters could not have rolled north, they would be running uphill; neither were the mountains which now intersect the land in all directions, in existence then, because the waters would have been unable to pass them. This Asiatic phenomena shows that, over one-half of the Northern parts of the Northern Hemisphere, water and ice rolled in a southerly direction and over the opposite parts of the Northern Hemisphere a wave, of water only, passed over the land, going in a northerly direction.
First, the volcanic cataclysm arising from volcanic workings. These cataclysms affect local areas only. Second, the magnetic cataclysm, caused by a lurch of the earth going back into magnetic balance.
Potassium-Argon Dating Methods
The attraction of the method lies in the fact that one of the daughter elements is argon which is an inert gas. This means that the geologist can plausibly assume that all argon gas escapes from the molten magma while it is still liquid. He thinks this solves his problem of not knowing the initial quantity of the daughter element in the past and not being able to go back in time and make measurements.
Biblical Sodom and Gomorrah found! The “Bible and Spade” Summer (Vol 12, No. 3) from the Associates for Biblical Research announces “The Discovery of the Sin Cities of Sodom and Gomorrah”.
Chronological Methods 9 – Potassium-Argon Dating Potassium-Argon Dating Potassium-Argon dating is the only viable technique for dating very old archaeological materials. Geologists have used this method to date rocks as much as 4 billion years old. It is based on the fact that some of the radioactive isotope of Potassium, Potassium K ,decays to the gas Argon as Argon Ar By comparing the proportion of K to Ar in a sample of volcanic rock, and knowing the decay rate of K , the date that the rock formed can be determined.
How Does the Reaction Work? Potassium K is one of the most abundant elements in the Earth’s crust 2. One out of every 10, Potassium atoms is radioactive Potassium K These each have 19 protons and 21 neutrons in their nucleus. If one of these protons is hit by a beta particle, it can be converted into a neutron. With 18 protons and 22 neutrons, the atom has become Argon Ar , an inert gas. For every K atoms that decay, 11 become Ar How is the Atomic Clock Set?
When rocks are heated to the melting point, any Ar contained in them is released into the atmosphere.